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Rona 3,5. Medallion brokers grew rich enough to buy yachts and waterfront properties. One of the most successful bankers hired the rap star Nicki Minaj to perform at a family party.

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But the methods stripped immigrant families of their life savings, crushed drivers under debt they could not repay and engulfed an industry that has long defined New York. More than medallion owners have filed for bankruptcy, according to a Times analysis of court records.

Thousands more are barely hanging on. The practices were strikingly similar to those behind the housing market crash that led to the global economic meltdown: Banks and loosely regulated private lenders wrote risky loans and encouraged frequent refinancing; drivers took on debt they could not afford, under terms they often did not understand.

Some big banks even entered the taxi industry in the aftermath of the housing crash, seeking a new market, with new borrowers.

The combination of easy money, eager borrowers and the lure of a rare asset helped prices soar far above what medallions were really worth. Some industry leaders fed the frenzy by purposefully overpaying for medallions in order to inflate prices, The Times found. About 4, drivers bought medallions in that period, records show. They were excited to buy, but they were enticed by a dubious premise. After the medallion market collapsed, Mayor Bill de Blasio opted not to fund a bailout, and earlier this year, the City Council speaker, Corey Johnson, shut down the committee overseeing the taxi industry, saying it had completed most of its work.

Over 10 months, The Times interviewed people, built a database of every medallion sale since and reviewed thousands of individual loans and other documents, perdre du poids 2 kilos naissance internal bank records and confidential profit-sharing agreements. The investigation found example after example of drivers trapped in exploitative loans, including hundreds who signed interest-only loans that required them to pay exorbitant fees, forfeit their legal rights and give up almost all their monthly income, indefinitely.

A Bangladeshi immigrant said he was told to lie about his income on his loan application; he eventually lost his medallion. A Haitian immigrant who worked to exhaustion to make his monthly payments discovered he had been paying only interest and went bankrupt. Abdur Rahim, who is from Bangladesh, is one of several cab drivers who allege they were duped into signing exploitative loans.

It is unclear if the practices violated any laws. Lenders developed their techniques in New York but spread them to Chicago, Boston, San Francisco and elsewhere, transforming taxi industries across the United States. In interviews, lenders denied wrongdoing.

They noted that regulators approved their practices, and said some borrowers made poor decisions and assumed too much debt.

They said some drivers were happy to use climbing medallion values as collateral to take out cash, and that those who sold their medallions at the height of the market made money. The lenders said they believed medallion values would keep increasing, as they almost always had.

No one, they said, could have predicted Uber and Lyft would emerge to undercut the business. But she acknowledged that officials saw red flags and could have done something. So the T. The lenders watched it happen. Joshi, who left the commission in March.

Why stop it? Every day, aboutpeople hail a New York City yellow taxi. Most probably do not know they are participating in an unconventional economic system about as old as the Empire State Building.

The city created taxi medallions in Unlicensed cabs crowded city streets, so officials designed about 12, specialized tin plates and made it illegal to operate a taxi without one bolted to the hood of the car. People who bought medallions could sell them, just like any other asset. Over time, as yellow taxis became symbols of New York, a cutthroat industry grew around them.

A few entrepreneurs obtained most of the nonindependent medallions and built fleets that controlled the market. Allegations of corruption, racism and exploitation dogged the industry. Some fleet bosses were accused of cheating drivers. Some drivers refused to go outside Manhattan or pick up black and Latino passengers. Fleet drivers typically worked 60 hours a week, made less than minimum wage and received no benefits, according to city studies.

Still, driving could serve as a path to the middle class. Drivers could save to buy an independent medallion, which would increase their earnings and give them an asset they could someday sell for a retirement nest egg. Those who borrowed money to buy a medallion typically had to submit a large down payment and repay within five to 10 years. The conservative lending strategy produced modest returns. He was a serious student and a gifted runner, despite a small and stocky frame.

He supervised dozens of schools and traveled on a government-issued motorcycle. Inwhen he was 33, he married Fouzia Mahabub. That same year, several of his friends signed up for the green card lottery, and their thirst for opportunity was contagious. He applied, and won. His wife had an uncle in Jamaica, Queens, so they went there. They found a studio apartment. Hoque wanted to work in education, but he did not speak enough English.

A friend recommended the taxi industry. It was an increasingly common move for South Asian immigrants. Over all, just 9 percent were born in the United States.

Hoque and his wife emigrated from Bangladesh, and have rented the same apartment in Queens since He worked 5 a. He often felt lonely on the road, and he developed back pain from sitting all day and diabetes, medical records show. He could have worked fewer shifts. He also could have moved out of the studio. But he drove as much as feasible and spent as little as possible. He had heard the city would soon be auctioning off new medallions.

He was saving to buy one. Andrew Murstein, left, with his father, Alvin. CreditChester Higgins Jr. They were the sons of longtime industry leaders, and they had new ideas for making money. Murstein attended business school and started his career at Bear Stearns and Salomon Brothers, the investment banks.

When he joined the taxi business, he has said, he pushed his family to sell off many medallions and to establish a bank to focus on lending. Medallion Financial went public in Dozens of industry veterans said Mr. Murstein and his father, Alvin, were among those who helped to move the industry to less conservative lending practices. The industry veterans said the Mursteins, as well as others, started saying medallion values would always rise and used that idea to focus on lending to lower-income drivers, which was riskier but more profitable.

The lenders began accepting smaller down payments. Bymany medallion buyers were not handing over any down payment at all, according to an analysis of buyer applications submitted to the city.

Silberger said. Lenders also encouraged existing borrowers to refinance and take out more money when medallion prices rose, according to interviews with dozens of borrowers and loan officers. There is no comprehensive data, but bank disclosures suggest that thousands of owners refinanced. Industry veterans said it became common for owners to refinance to buy a house or to put children through college.

Yvon Augustin has been living with help from his children ever since he declared bankruptcy and lost his taxi medallion. Some pointed to the refinancing to argue that irresponsible borrowers fueled the crisis. As lenders loosened standards, they increased returns. Rather than raising interest rates, they made borrowers pay a mix of costs — origination fees, legal fees, financing fees, refinancing fees, filing fees, fees for paying too late and fees for paying too early, according to a Times review of more than loans included in legal cases.

Many lenders also made borrowers split their loan and pay a much higher rate on the second loan, documents show. Lenders also extended loan lengths. Instead of requiring repayment in five or 10 years, they developed deals that lasted as long as 50 years, locking in decades of interest payments. And some wrote interest-only loans that could continue forever. Almost every loan reviewed by The Times included a clause that spiked the interest rate to as high as 24 percent if it was not repaid in three years.

Yvon Augustin was caught in one of those loans. He bought a medallion ina decade after emigrating from Haiti. But last year, his bank used the balloon to demand that he repay everything. That is when he learned he had been paying only the interest, he said. Augustin, 69, declared bankruptcy and lost his medallion. He lives off assistance from his children. During the global financial crisis, Eugene Haber, a lawyer for the taxi industry, started getting calls from bankers he had never met.

Haber had written a template for medallion loans in the s. Byhis thick mustache had turned white, and he thought he knew everybody in the industry. Suddenly, new bankers began calling his suite in a Long Island office park. Some of the banks enlever volume cheveux epais ondulé looking for new borrowers after the housing market collapsed, Mr.

Haber said. He said he represented some banks at loan signings but eventually became embittered because he believed banks were knowingly lending to people who could not repay.

Instead of lending directly, the big banks worked through powerful industry players. In return, the owners and brokers received a cut of the monthly payments and sometimes an additional fee. The fleet owners and brokers, who technically issued the loans, did not face the same scrutiny as banks. Evgeny Freidman, a fleet owner, has said he purposely overbid for taxi medallions in order to drive up their value.

CreditSasha Maslov Still, Mr. Fisher said, Melrose followed lending rules. Konstantinides, a fleet owner and the broker and lender who arranged Mr.

Konstantinides, who added that he was also an immigrant. He said he could not speak for the brokers and fleet owners with whom he worked. Rabin and other Signature executives denied fault for the market collapse and blamed the city for allowing ride-hail companies to enter with little regulation. DePaolo, the president and chief executive of Signature. New York Commercial Bank said in a statement that it began issuing medallion loans before the housing crisis and that they were a very small part of its business.

The bank did not engage in risky lending practices, a spokesman said. Messados said in an interview that he disagreed with interest-only loans and other one-sided terms.

But he said he was caught between banks developing the loans and drivers clamoring for them. Several lenders challenged the idea that borrowers were unsophisticated. They said that some got better deals by negotiating with multiple lenders at once. Greenbaum, Mr. Chipman and Mr. Sapino declined to comment, as did Capital One. Some fleet owners worked to manipulate prices. He reasoned that the higher prices would become the industry standard, making the medallions he already owned worth more.

He recently pleaded guilty to felony tax fraud. He declined to comment. As medallion prices kept increasing, the industry became strained. Drivers had to work longer hours to make monthly payments. Eventually, loan records show, many drivers had to use almost all their income on payments. Nobody from Brooklyn was going to pay that. Muhammad Ashraf, who is not fluent in English, said he thought he was getting a loan to purchase a car but ended up in debt to buy a taxi medallion instead.

He said in an interview in Urdu that he could not speak English fluently and thought he was just signing a loan to buy a car. He said he found out about the loan when his bank sued him for not fully repaying. The bank eventually decided not to pursue a case against Mr. He also filed a lawsuit against Mr. That case was dismissed. A lawyer for Mr. Candero declined to comment. In an interview, he added he was told to lie on his loan application.

In court, Bay Ridge has denied there were hidden fees and said Mr. Several employees of lenders said they were pushed to write loans, encouraged by bonuses and perks such as tickets to sporting events and free trips to the Bahamas.

They also said drivers almost never had lawyers at loan closings. Borrowers instead trusted their broker to represent them, even though, unbeknown to them, the broker was often getting paid by the bank. Stan Zurbin, who between and did consulting work for a lender that issued medallion loans, said that as prices rose, lenders in the industry increasingly lent to immigrants.

A lot of them just had no idea what they were signing. Hoque did not want her husband to buy a medallion. She wanted to use their savings to buy a house. They had their first child inand they planned to have more. They needed to leave the studio apartment, and she thought a home would be a safer investment. But Mr. Konstantinides, a fleet owner who also had a brokerage and a lending company, Mega Funding.

The call came a few weeks later. Mega eventually requested twice that amount for fees and a down payment, records show. Hoque said he maxed out credit cards and borrowed from a dozen friends and relatives. By the time the deal closed in JulyMr. Hoque had heard of a new company called Uber. He wondered if it would hurt the business, but nobody seemed to be worried. As Mr. An official pointed a camera. Hoque smiled. Murstein said, beaming in a navy suit and pink tie.

He did not mention he was quietly leaving the business, a move that would benefit him when the market collapsed. By the time of the appearance, Medallion Financial had been cutting the number of medallion loans on its books for years, according to disclosures it filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Murstein later said the company started exiting the business and focusing on other ventures before Murstein declined numerous interview requests.

He also declined to answer some written questions, including why he promoted medallions while exiting the business. In emails and through a spokesman, he acknowledged that Medallion Financial reduced down payments but said it rarely issued interest-only loans or charged borrowers for repaying loans too early.

Interviews with three former staffers, and a Times review of loan documents that were filed as part of lawsuits brought by Medallion Financial against borrowers, indicate the company issued many interest-only loans and routinely included a provision allowing it to charge borrowers for repaying loans too early. The credit unions specializing in the industry kept making new loans.

But between andthey sold the loans to other financial institutions more often than in the previous five years, disclosure forms show.

Progressive Credit Union, run by Mr. Familant, sold loans off almost twice as often, the forms show. Bythat credit union was selling the majority of the loans it issued. In a statement, Mr. Familant said the selling of loans was a standard banking practice that did not indicate a lack of confidence in the market. Several banks used something called a confession of judgment.

It was an obscure document in which the borrower admitted defaulting on the loan — even before taking out any money at all — and authorized the bank to do whatever it wanted to collect. Larry Fisher was the medallion lending supervisor at Melrose Credit Union, one of the biggest lenders originally in the industry, from to Congress has banned that practice in consumer loans, but not in business loans, which is how lenders classified medallion deals.

Many states have barred it in business loans, too, but New York is not among them. Even as some lenders quietly braced for the market to fall, prices kept rising, and profits kept growing. Bymany of the people who helped create the bubble had made millions of dollars and invested it elsewhere. Medallion Financial started focusing on lending to R. InMs.

The Melrose C. His medallion lending supervisor, Mr. Fisher, also made millions. It is harder to tell how much fleet owners and brokers made, but in recent years news articles have featured some of them with new boats and houses.

At least eight drivers have committed suicide, including three medallion owners with overwhelming loans. The medallion bubble burst in late Uber and Lyft may have hastened the crisis, but virtually all of the hundreds of industry veterans interviewed for this article, including many lenders, said inflated prices and risky lending practices would have caused a collapse even if ride-hailing had never been invented.

Many owners could make their payments only by refinancing when medallion values increased, which was unsustainable, some loan officers said.

City data shows that since Uber entered New York inyellow cab revenue has decreased by about 10 percent per cab, a significant bite for low-earning drivers but a small drop compared with medallion values, which initially rose and then fell by 90 percent. As values fell, borrowers asked for breaks. But many lenders went the opposite direction.

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They decided to leave the business and called in their loans. They used the confessions to get hundreds of judgments that would allow them to take money from bank accounts, court records show. Others seized medallions and quickly resold them for profit, while still charging the original borrowers fees and extra interest.

Several drivers have alleged in court that their lenders ordered them to buy life insurance. Many lenders hired a debt collector, Anthony Medina, to seize medallions from borrowers who missed payments. One man, Jean Demosthenes, a year-old Haitian immigrant who could not speak English, said in an interview in Haitian Creole that Mr. Medina cornered him in Midtown, displayed a gun and took his car. In an interview, Mr.

Medina denied threatening anyone with a gun.


He said he requested cash because drivers who had defaulted could not be trusted to write good checks. He said he met drivers at parks and referred to himself as the vehicle apprehension unit because he wanted to hide his identity out of fear he could be targeted by borrowers.

But to get that money, drivers have had to find new loans. Greenbaum, a fleet owner, has provided many of those loans, sometimes at interest rates of up to 15 percent, loan documents and interviews showed. Other drivers lost everything. Most of the more than owners who declared bankruptcy had to forfeit their medallions. Records indicate many were bought by hedge funds hoping for impossible rides 2014 to rise.

For now, cabs sit unused. Jean Demosthenes said his medallion was repossessed by a man with a gun. The man denied that he was armed. Bhairavi Desai, founder of the Taxi Workers Alliance, which represents drivers and independent owners, has asked the city to bail out owners or refund auction purchasers.

Others have urged the city to pressure banks to forgive loans or soften terms. Gupta also said the state should close the loophole that let lenders classify medallion deals as business loans, even though borrowers had to guarantee them with everything they owned. Consumer loans have far more disclosure rules and protections.

Uber vs Lyft

Last year, amid eight known suicides of drivers, including three medallion owners with overwhelming loans, the city passed a temporary cap on ride-hailing cars, created a task force to study the industry and directed the city taxi commission to do its own analysis of the debt crisis. Earlier this year, the Council eliminated the committee overseeing the industry after its chairman, Councilman Rubén Díaz Sr.

On the last day ofMr. Hoque brought their third child home from the hospital. He looked around. He could not believe he was still living in the same room. His loan had quickly faltered. He could not make the payments and afford rent, and his medallion was seized. Medina to get it back. He borrowed from friends, promising it would not happen again. Then it happened four more times, he said. Konstantinides, the broker, said in his statement that he met with Mr.

Hoque many times and twice modified one of his loans in order to lower his monthly payments. He also said he gave Mr.

Hoque extra time to make some payments. In all, between the initial fees, monthly payments and penalties after the seizures, Mr. Bankruptcy would cost money, ruin his credit and remove his only income source. And it would mean a shameful end to years of hard work. He believed his only choice was to keep working and to keep paying. His cab was supposed to be his ticket to money and freedom, but instead it seemed like a prison cell.

Every day, he got in before the sun rose and stayed until the sky began to darken. Hoque, now 48, tried not to think about home, about what he had given up and what he had dreamed about. Reporting was contributed by Emma G. Fitzsimmons, Suzanne Hillinger, Derek M. Doris Burke and Susan Beachy contributed research. Produced by Jeffrey Furticella and Meghan Louttit. Kommentar: Die Bundesrepublik wurde vom ersten Augenblick an auf Schwerindustrie und Kriegsvorbereitung getrimmt.

Können Sie sich folgendes vorstellen? Unsere Bundesregierung erscheint zu einem gut ausgeleuchteten Festakt, mit international auserlesenem Publikum. In dieser umständlichen Ausdrucksweise kommt das Petersberger Abkommen vom November daher.

Die dort verkündeten hehren Ziele hatte die Bundesregierung unter Doktor Konrad Adenauer mit den Alliierten Westmächten, die damals Deutschland kontrollierten, vertraglich vereinbart.

Machen Sie sich keine Sorgen. Papier ist geduldig. Wir können uns auch hier darauf verlassen, dass unsere Politiker sehr gut zwischen populärem Wunschdenken und tatsächlich vollzogener Realpolitik zu unterscheiden wussten.

Dieser hehren Absichtserklärung ging am Mai die Gründung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland voraus. Eine Legende und zwei Thesen. Dann war die Sowjetunion aus jenem Kontrollrat ausgeschieden. Die Westmächte führten nämlich, ohne die Sowjetunion auch nur zu informieren, für ihre Besatzungszonen die neue Deutsche Mark als separate Währung ein und erhoben damit die Spaltung Deutschlands zu einer vollendeten Tatsache.

Die Sowjets sperrten als hilflose Vergeltung die Westberliner in der Blockade von für ein Jahr ein - und hatten sich damit selber isoliert und zum allgemeinen Gespött gemacht. Nun konnte der Westen sagen: seht mal her - mit den Sowjets kann man sowieso nicht vernünftig reden. Nochmal gesagt: eine Legende.

Wenn schon Ostdeutschland an die Kommunisten gefallen war, mussten die eigenen Investitionsobjekte wenigstens in einem westdeutschen Teilstaat nach kapitalistischem Reglement gepflegt und weiter ausgebaut werden. Und zwar nicht allein von deutschen Industriellen, Bankern, Politikern und Militärs. Diese hätten für sich genommen gar nichts bewegen können. Denn Deutschland hatte nach den astronomischen Reparationsforderungen der Siegermächte leere Hosentaschen.

Betonung der Schwerindustrie. Mit einem Schlag verfügte Deutschland über gigantische Global Player, allerdings finanziell kontrolliert von der Wall Street. Diese Betonung der Schwerindustrie ging an den vitalen Interessen der Bevölkerung haarscharf vorbei und machte so für sich gesehen keinen ökonomischen Sinn: Industriezyklopen waren in der Weimarer Republik nie auch nur annähernd ausgelastet.

Das änderte sich mit der Nazi-Diktatur. Hitlers massive Aufrüstung, finanziert durch eine Kryptowährung mit Namen Mefo-Fonds, brachte endlich die Vollauslastung der Schwerindustrie - zu Lasten der anderen Industriezweige und mit der Folge einer von den Nazis massiv betriebenen Zerschlagung der mittelständischen und kleinformatigen Wirtschaft.

IG Farben war durch weltweite Revierabsprachen und Patentaustausch z. Man kann die gesamte Schwerindustrie des Dritten Reiches durchdeklinieren: bis auf wenige Ausnahmen wie Siemens war die US-Wirtschaft im deutschen Drittreich omnipräsent.

Zudem gab es mit der Bank für Internationalen Zahlungsausgleich BIZ mit Sitz im schweizerischen Basel seit ein supranationales Instrument, um Kapitalflüsse von nun an planvoll zu lenken.

Dort eine Fraktion amerikanischer Unternehmer und Banker, die entweder mit den Nazis offen sympathisierten oder zumindest bereit waren, jeden zu unterstützen, der für den vorteilhaften eigenen Geschäftsverlauf förderlich war. Dokumente über diese letztere Machtfraktion legen den Schluss nahe, dass man hier geradezu auf einen Sieg Hitlers und eine Niederlage der verhassten Linkspopulisten um Roosevelt baute.

Eine besonders verwerfliche Rolle spielte in diesem Zusammenhang wieder einmal die Bank für Internationalen Zahlungsausgleich. Die BIZ sorgte dafür, dass Gold, das die Nazi-Aggressoren aus den von ihnen überfallenen Ländern geraubt hatten, auf dem internationalen Goldmarkt angeboten wurde, damit das Nazireich mit Devisen jederzeit militärisch relevante Munition und Rüstungsgüter erwerben konnte.

Als das Nazireich endlich am 8. So schien es zumindest. Die Staaten als Vollstrecker des Gemeinwillens sollten die Oberhand gewinnen. Und nicht intransparente Machtkonglomerate und Netzwerke, die am Gemeinwohl vorbei ihre Manöver durchzogen.

Die Bank für Internationalen Zahlungsausgleich sollte zerschlagen werden. So sah es die Regierung unter Roosevelt vor. Ein neuer Wind bei der Besatzungsbehörde. Martin hatte zunächst seit im Justizministerium der US-Regierung amerikanischen Konzernen auf die Finger geschaut, die den Nazis günstig Kriegsgüter verkauften, den US-Streitkräften diese Kriegsgüter jedoch vorenthielten.

Mittlerweile ist Präsident Roosevelt gestorben. Seine Gefolgsleute werden gerade in einer Art von kaltem Putsch entsorgt. Auch bei der Besatzungsbehörde weht jetzt ein anderer Wind. Martins Recherchearbeit wird nach allen Regeln der Kunst behindert. Leiter von Martins Wirtschaftsabteilung war zunächst Graeme K.

Man müsse Hitler besänftigen, um Frieden zu schaffen. Das war denn doch ein bisschen zu starker Tobak. Doch auch Martins nächster Chef war keinen Deut besser.

William Henry Draper jr. Draper sorgt dafür, dass die Nazi-Unternehmer und -Banker, die laut Potsdam-Beschlüsse hinter Schloss und Riegel gebracht werden sollten, alle wieder frei kamen und in ihre alten Posten zurückkehren konnten. Von Kartellauflösung war jetzt keine Rede mehr. Das hatte Zeit, dozierte Draper. Jetzt komme es darauf an, die deutsche Wirtschaft schnell wieder auf die Beine zu bringen. Die Schwerindustrie, versteht sich. Martin macht trotzdem mit seinen getreuen Mitarbeitern weiter.

Erste Station: Bankhaus J. Stein in Köln. Martins nächste Station: Frankfurt am Main. Die gesamte Kernstadt von Frankfurt ist durch Bomben niedergebrannt. Trotz allem kann sich Martin ein Bild über die ausgiebigen Vernetzungen zwischen Wall Street und Nazihierarchie verschaffen, das er uns in einem Buch vermittelt.

Es stieg vielmehr zu noch nie gekannter Blüte auf. Denn Draper und seine Freunde sorgten nicht nur dafür, dass die alten Nazi-Spezis dem deutschen Volk erneut vor die Nase gesetzt wurden. Bei der Vergabe von Unternehmenslizenzen behandelte man die Mitglieder der Fraternity bevorzugt, während unabhängige Unternehmer auf diesem kalten Wege abgeschaltet wurden.

Die Bank für Internationalen Zahlungsausgleich wurde nicht zerschlagen. Sie sorgte ebenfalls dafür, dass das deutsche Übergewicht in diesem Gremium sich auch erneut auf die reale Wirtschaft in Europa niederschlug. Martin hat zudem festgestellt, dass Millionen Dollar Raubgold, das die Nazis sich angeeignet hatten, nach dem Krieg nicht wieder aufgetaucht sind. Er stellt die Frage, ob Nazi-Seilschaften, die sich, mit amerikanischer und vatikanischer Hilfe nach Argentinien oder in Francos Spanien verkrümelt hatten8, womöglich Einfluss auf die Politik in Westdeutschland ausüben könnten ….

Die Schwerindustrie musste allerdings jetzt neu organisiert werden. Die symbiotische Beziehung, die lothringisches Erz und die Kohle von der Ruhr im Kaiserreich gepflegt hatten, war nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg abrupt beendet worden. Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg wurde über die supranationale Montanunion diese Symbiose wieder hergestellt.

Westdeutschland als der bevorzugte Kreiselplanet. Besonders im benachbarten Ausland. Verzweifelt wehrten sie sich gegen ihre neue Rolle als gegenüber den USA nunmehr untergeordnete Mittelmächte, die mit Deutschland zusammen um die neue Supermacht kreisen sollten.

Für Westdeutschland sprachen die seit Jahrzehnten gut eingespielten transatlantischen Geschäftsnetzwerke. Zudem war Westdeutschland nach den Flächenbombardierungen eine leere Tafel, in die nach amerikanischen Gesichtspunkten neu eingeschrieben werden konnte. Die in den Nachbarländern viel und reichlich und zu Recht artikulierte Angst vor neuer deutscher Übermacht meinte eindeutig auch die Potentiale, die sich aus einer neuen deutschen Rolle als mächtiger Subunternehmer der USA ergaben.

Dort schworen sie sich gegenseitige Waffenbruderschaft gegen die Teutonen. Die USA verlangten nämlich immer lauter, die westeuropäischen Länder müssten ein wiederbewaffnetes Westdeutschland in ihre Reihen aufnehmen. Das wollten die Brüsseler Vertragspartner nun gar nicht.