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Five taxa, including F. The five taxa with the highest average abundance, measured within individual abscess specimens and then numerically averaged across all abscess specimens, were F.

Abundance for each bacterial species is defined as the intensity signal reflective of the numbers of bacterial species X within each individual abscess specimen and then averaged for the entire abscess specimen set. Using the log base 2 scale, the range of transformed intensity values in the horizontal axis is 0— Interestingly, the other three taxa demonstrating high prevalence across all abscess specimens — Megasphaera species clone CS, P.

The bacteria found most commonly associated with other bacteria, at levels above Spearman rank correlation coefficients of 0. For the current study, we examined endodontic abscesses for the presence of oral bacterial species taxa-specific probes using microarray determinations conducted by the Human Oral Microbial Identification Laboratory at the Forsyth Institute Cambridge, MA. Our findings confirmed and provided new information supporting the earlier research by Siqueira and Rôcas 6describing the microbiota of endodontic abscesses obtained from the demographic region in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

In our Portland, Oregon abscess collection, we found similar microbial species as those defined in Siqueira and Rôcas 6 as well as several new strong bacterial associations, including those between F. Interestingly, Veillonella species, which were detected in many culture-independent studies, but absent in Siqueira and Rôcas 6hair botox toronto also found in low prevalence 2 out of 18 abscesses in our study.

In addition, Treponema species clones, numbering 25 taxa-specific probes in our study, were detected in very low abundance in many specimens; only three abscess specimens generated moderate signals with the Treponema probes, Treponema maltophilum in two abscesses and Treponema cluster in the third abscess. This is in contrast to the findings of Siqueira and Rôcas 6 and to numerous culture-independent studies that have detected moderate-to-high numbers of the oral treponemes, Treponema denticola and Treponema socranskiiwithin endodontic abscesses In addition, Enterococcus faecalis was not detected in any of the abscess specimens in our study, regime mal au muscle with the findings of others that E.

In addition, Megasphaera species clone CSP. Strong associations were also found between bacterial taxa whose correlations had not previously been established. Several significant positive associations involving F. We have minimized the risk of abscess sample contamination with the use of the chlorhexidine gluconate oral rinse and the disinfection of mucosal surfaces with Povidone—Iodine swabs.

Paper point collections, conducted at the site of abscess aspiration, did not produce any microbial growth. The 5-year delay between HOMIM analysis and the preparation of this manuscript was due to the time required to obtain funding to recruit and pay biostatisticians qualified to analyze complex microarray data.

We acknowledge that another potential negative control, which was not conducted during the experimental phase of this work inmay have been the aspiration of tissue or blood from the mucosa of a healthy subject and the identification of any potential contaminants by microarray analysis.

We also acknowledge that differences in the microbiota profiles identified in abscesses obtained from the demographic regions in Portland, Oregon, and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, may be due to technical differences in the microarray methods, including the design of the 16S rRNA gene probes and the hybridization conditions used to target specific microbial sequences. Multiple microorganisms initiate endodontic infections, and genera such as Fusobacterium, Treponema, Prevotellaand Streptococcus dominate these lesions, although the range of bacteria present may vary 516 — Within specific genera, different species have been found to work synergistically, utilizing virulence factors from complementary microorganisms to their advantage Furthermore, coinfection of F.

This cooperative growth may explain the presence of M. In addition, F. The synergistic interactions of enhancing virulence and inhibiting host immune response are believed to be contributory determinants of endodontic and periodontal disease.

The inter-study variability of microbiota species identified in periodontal and endodontic diseases may be based on the geographic location of the patient pool and specimen acquisition.

Several studies have shown that body sites typically colonize different microbes depending on geographic locations. For example, Kemppainem et al. Furthermore, different single-nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were found to occur in different geographic locations Machado de Oliveira et al.

Although common microbiota profiles were found between these two geographic locations, the prevalence of microbes varied between studies. In addition, it is widely accepted that ethnic and geographic differences exist in periodontal microbiota profiles 27and we conclude, in part by extrapolation, that geographic location may play a role in the pathogenic microbial causes of endodontic and periodontal infections.

The pathogenicity of P. Through these mechanisms, S. Furthermore, the ability of S. Bacterial interactions within endodontic infections may synergistically or antagonistically affect growth and underscore the complexity of the ecological determinants that support the metabolic efficiency and pathogenic potency of the composite bacterial community.

Our study supports the findings of previous research in defining the most prevalent bacteria within endodontic abscesses and identifies strong bacterial associations, some of which may be unique for the demographic region in Portland, Oregon, or patient population. Furthermore, the presence of S. NG and EF are noted as equal contributors to this work. We thank Truman Nielsen for support in conducting earlier portions of the experimentation.

We also thank Dr. Bruce J. Paster for providing detailed commentary concerning the HOMIM probe generation, hybridization, and washing procedures. There is no conflict of interest in the present study for any of the authors. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

Dental caries bacteria name

Journal List J Oral Microbiol v. J Oral Microbiol. Published online Mar Craig Baumgartner. Curtis A. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Differential diagnosis of caries

Abstract Background and objectives Acute apical abscesses are serious endodontic diseases resulting from pulpal infection with opportunistic oral microorganisms. Results The most prevalent microorganisms, found across multiple abscess specimens, include Fusobacterium nucleatumParvimonas micraMegasphaera species clone CS, Prevotella multisaccharivoraxAtopobium rimaeand Porphyromonas endodontalis.

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Conclusions Cultivable and uncultivable bacterial species have been identified in endodontic abscesses obtained from the Portland, Oregon demographic region, and taxa identifications correlated well with other published studies, with the exception of Treponema and Streptococcus cristaewhich were not commonly identified in endodontic abscesses between the demographic region in Portland, Oregon and other regions.

Keywords: endodontic abscesses, oral microbiota, human oral microbial identification microarrays, anaerobic oral microorganisms, Fusobacterium nucleatumStreptococcus cristatus. Data normalization and statistical analysis Each probe was tested by z test to determine if the average of the signal intensity values was significantly higher than that of local background noise. Results Out of unique taxon-specific probes representing species, 81 probes were reactive with the abscess specimen DNA.

Open in a separate window. Discussion Oral microbiota contained within endodontic abscesses For the current study, we examined endodontic abscesses for the presence of oral bacterial species taxa-specific probes using microarray determinations conducted by the Human Oral Microbial Identification Laboratory at the Forsyth Institute Cambridge, MA.

Coinfection of F. Microbiota in endodontic abscesses may differ based on geographic considerations The inter-study variability of microbiota species identified in periodontal and endodontic diseases may be based on the geographic location of the patient pool and specimen acquisition.

Potential role of streptococci species and S. Implications of mixed microbial infections and concluding remarks Bacterial interactions within endodontic infections may synergistically or antagonistically affect growth and underscore the complexity of the ecological determinants that support the metabolic efficiency and pathogenic potency of the composite bacterial community. Acknowledgements NG and EF are noted as equal contributors to this work.

Conflict of interest and funding There is no conflict of interest in the present study for any of the authors. References 1. Torabinejad M, Shabahang S. Pulp and periapical pathosis. Principles and practice. Siqueira JF. Sasaki H, Stashenko P. Interrelationship of the pulp and apical periodontitis. Seltzer and Bender's dental pulp. Chicago, IL: Quintessence Publishing; Microbiology of endodontic disease. Ingle's Endodontics. Hamilton, Canada: BC Decker; Microbiology and treatment of acute apical abscesses.

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