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BCG treatment is usually started a few weeks after an initial resection and biopsy of the bladder tumor to allow the bladder time to heal. The usual treatment is given once a week for 6 weeks.

In the office patients are given live attenuated BCG mixed in 50 ml of normal saline instilled into the bladder via a urethral catheter.

Before instillation urinary tract infection is excluded and the catheter is introduced in an atraumatic way. The patient retains the fluid within the bladder for an hour or two.

This is to ensure that all the bladder mucosa comes into contact with the BCG. There is a small risk of infection with BCG, therefore the staff administering the BCG are suitably protected with masks, goggles, gloves, and gowns.

Patients are advised to bleach their toilets after urinating, so as to neutralize and kill any BCG from the urine. Sometimes longer treatment regimens are used. An immune booster called interferon can be added. Long-term maintenance BCG therapy where short courses of three weeks given every few months is also used to try to prevent recurrent bladder cancer.

Patients not responding to BCG need to have alternative treatments and have a high risk of disease progression and metastatic disease.

Treatment with BCG can cause symptoms and side effect that feel like having the flu, such as fever, chills, and fatigue. It can also cause a burning feeling in the bladder that may increase through the course of a treatment. Rarely, BCG can spread through the body, leading to a systemic infection. How does BCG work? The exact mechanism of action of BCG is not completely understood. It is known that an intact immune system is important for the antitumor activities of BCG.

But how the body suddenly recognizes and kills a bladder cancer that it did not previously recognize is not well understood. BCG is a tuberculosis vaccine. There are betweencases of tuberculosis reported in the United States annually, with HIV-positive immunocompromised patients being the most susceptible.

But tuberculosis recently has made the front page of our local newspapers here in Minnesota because of a small outbreak of difficult to treat tuberculosis within our community. In Tuberculosis TB is caused by bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis that most often affect the lungs. When people with lung tuberculosis cough, sneeze or spit, they propel the tuberculosis germs into the air.

A person needs to inhale only a few of these germs to become infected. About one-quarter of the world's population has latent tuberculosis, which means people have been infected by tuberculosis bacteria but are not yet ill with the disease and cannot transmit the disease. Worse yet, strains of tuberculosis that are resistant to the most common therapy are becoming more common.

The World Health Organization estimates that there werenew cases last year with resistance to rifampicin — the most effective first-line drug, of which had Multiple drug resistant-tuberculosis. Here is where our story begins to take on a local note.

According to a recent article in the MPLS paper the Star Tribune at least 17 people have been diagnosed within our community recently with active drug resistant Tuberculosis. Health officials are scrambling to identify those closest to those diagnosed to see if those people have either active or latent infections.

Testing on people has already turned up 58 cases of latent tuberculosis infection, meaning they carry the disease, and may go on to develop symptoms and become infectious, especially if they have chronic health conditions or as they age and their immune systems weaken.

Like those who show symptoms, those with latent infections are being urged to take the second-tier antibiotics for up to 18 to 24 months. Another potential contacts known to investigators of our local outbreak had incomplete date of birth or address information, complicating the efforts to track them down.

That means there are potential latent infections in our community left untreated. This is especially chilling as we enter the cough and cold season here in Minnesota. An estimated 53 million lives were saved through tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment between and Ending the tuberculosis epidemic by is among the health targets of the Sustainable Development Goals for the maigrir en courant vite fait Health Organization.

One goal of the strategy is to immunize against tuberculosis. The United States does not actively immunize against tuberculosis, but many other countries do. The tuberculosis vaccine used is BCG.

It was first given as a vaccine in Development of the BCG vaccine goes back many years prior to Inscientists isolated Mycobacterium bovis from a cow with tuberculous mastitis. Bovine tuberculosis was a significant cause of death among cattle in the early 20th century and remains a risk today. Scientists quickly got to work studying bovine TB in the lab. But initially working with bovine TB in the laboratory proved difficult.

The mycobacterium culture in the laboratory showed a strong tendency to clump. In order to prevent adhesion, inworking together at the Pasteur Institute Albert Calmette, a physician by training and research bad-ass who, according to Wikipedia, had invented the first anti-venom for snake venom and Camille Guérin, a veterinarian by training added bovine bile to the bovine TB culture medium to prevent clumping.

After this culture, the M bovis showed a loss of virulence for animals. With each subsequent culture the bovine TB would show less virulence. Inafter a period of 13 years and culture passages through the laboratory the culture was regarded as being avirulent or noninfectious. BCG was first used in humans in when it was given to a child in Paris.

The baby developed into a perfectly normal boy. During the next three years up to July a further infants were also vaccinated. The story of BCG then takes a cloudy turn when, inwhen 72 vaccinated children developed tuberculosis in Lübeck, Germany, due to a contamination of some batches of the vaccine.

Mass vaccination of children was stopped after the disaster but then reinstated in many countries afterwhen new and safer production techniques were implemented. Strains of BCG are still used today in vaccination programs around the world.

BCG vaccine has a documented protective effect against meningitis and disseminated tuberculosis in children. It does not prevent primary infection and, more importantly, does not prevent reactivation of latent pulmonary infection, the principal source of bacillary spread in the community. Next in our tale about how BCG came to be used for bladder cancer comes thanks to Dr. Raymond Pearl, a prolific writer and biologist from Johns Hopkins.

Pearl reported in that among the first autopsy studies at Johns Hopkins there was a negative association of patients with tuberculosis and cancer and he proposed that tuberculosis infection somehow prevents cancer. That assertion is false. Later analysis of his data by others showed that his data had significant selection bias. Criticism of this paper and his analytical methods at the time in particular was to be a stumbling block in his career advancement when Dr.

Pearl was being considered for a position at the Bussey Institute at Harvard. Interest in BCG and tuberculosis as a cancer treatment waxed and waned between and but the story continues after intra-lesion injections of BCG for melanoma of the skin proved successful.

After the melanoma treatments proved successful for the skin an adventurous urologist injected and successfully treated a melanoma of the bladder through cystoscopic injection, published in the Journal of urology in This success sparked an interest in BCG treatments of other forms of bladder cancer. In the first report of BCG treatment for transitional cell carcinoma was published by Dr.

Morales in the Journal of Urology. This paper is included in a series of papers in an anniversary edition of the Journal of Urology now celebrating its th year of publication. You can find it at www. Donald Lamm was awarded the initial NIH-funded contract to evaluate BCG immunotherapy of superficial bladder cancer in a randomized clinical trial This work, accruing an eventual patients, resulted in the first controlled trial demonstrating the efficacy of intra-vesical BCG immunotherapy.

Urologists have been using BCG as a treatment for superficial bladder cancer ever since. I have really taken us on a journey in this episode. I wonder what Drs. Calmette and Guerin would have thought in as they were adding bile to a bovine TB culture medium if you told them we would eventually use a tuberculosis vaccine they would develop to treat bladder cancer. To get from there to here otherwise cautious urologist had to become the adventurous surgeons and scientists that we have talked about in previous podcasts, the phrase that caught my eye from the editorial introducing the th anniversary edition of the Journal of Urology.

An estimated 33 million adults in the U. In preparation for National Bladder Health Awareness Month today we are going to talk about bladder cancer. According to the American Cancer Society bladder cancer is more common as a person grows older.

Bladder cancer is three times more common in males than females. Whites are diagnosed with bladder cancer about twice as often as African or Hispanic Americans, but African-Americans present more commonly with advanced disease.

Smoking tobacco may be the cause of half of all bladder tumors. If you need another reason to stop smoking if you are a smoker, please add bladder cancer to your list, 2.

You are at risk for bladder cancer if you are exposed to chemicals in the workplace used to make plastics, paints, textiles, leather and rubber, 3.

I have recently diagnosed patients with bladder cancer without significant risk factors other than age and gender. One gentleman I saw recently had come in for a routine follow up appointment for his enlarged prostate and elevated PSA number. The day before his appointment, however, he had seen blood in his urine and mentioned it casually at the end of his appt. He was having no other symptoms. Urologists take blood in the urine very seriously.

Blood in the urine is the most common symptom of bladder cancer. When bleeding occurs because of bladder cancer it is generally painless, and is seen in the entire urine stream. If you see blood in your urine you should tell a healthcare centre amaigrissement villecresnes so they can refer you to a urologist.

Even if the blood goes away, you should still talk to your doctor about it. When you see blood in the urine, it is called "gross hematuria. A very small amount of blood might be normal in some people and not lead to a medical condition, but ALL patients require evaluation when the amount of blood detected on the urinalysis is more than just a trace amount. Blood in the urine does not always mean that you have bladder cancer either. We have to evaluate the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra to try to identify a source for the bleeding.

A CT scan or ultrasound is ordered to look at the kidneys and ureters, with a CT scan with and without IV contrast dye being the recommended test in most cases. We can run a urine cytology or other bladder tests on the urine to see if there are changes that would indicate bladder cancer. But to evaluate specifically for bladder cancer, unfortunately, the best test is to actually look inside the bladder with a scope.

We have to perform a cystoscopy, a procedure to look inside the bladder. A cystoscope is a thin flexible instrument that has a light and camera or fiberoptics at the end of it allowing us to see directly inside the bladder. To get into the bladder we have to pass the cystoscope through the urethra. Cystoscopy is done as an outpatient procedure in the clinic. The average cystoscopy takes just a minute or two. As you would expect the procedure is uncomfortable, and carries with it a small risk of infection from the introduction of the scope into the bladder.

A cystoscopy is the most common procedure done in our office. There are many reasons we perform cystoscopy, to rule out cancer of course but also to evaluate the urethra, prostate, and bladder anatomy.

Other symptoms of bladder cancer as well as many other urologic problems may include changes in urination. Frequent urination or pain when you pass urine called dysuria are less common symptoms of bladder cancer and often indicate other problems such as infection or overactive bladder.

But to evaluate these symptoms more completely we will often perform cystoscopy, even if cancer is not suspected. Cancer is when your body cells grow out of control when the normal DNA instructions for cell growth are disrupted.

Most cancers form a lump called a tumor. In the case of bladder cancer that growth occurs inside the bladder and we can visualize it directly with the scope. A review of anatomy is appropriate. The bladder is a hollow organ in the pelvis with flexible, muscular walls. The bladder is where the body stores urine before it leaves the body. The bladder can get bigger or smaller as it fills with urine and empties. When you go to the bathroom, the muscles in your bladder will contract.

They then push urine out through a tube called the urethra. In addition to the muscular layer of the bladder the bladder wall has other layers, made up of different types of cells. The inner lining is called urothelium lined by a special type of cells called transitional cells. Transitional cells are designed to make a transition are able to change shape from very bunched up and contracted when the bladder is empty to being very stretched out and thin when the bladder is full. Other types of bladder cancer exist but are much less common and include squamous cell carcinoma cancer that begins in thin, flat cells lining the bladder and adenocarcinoma cancer that begins in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids.

Transitional cell carcinomas grow typically as a polypoid growth, with a stalk and are referred to as being papillary. A person with bladder cancer will have one or more tumors in the lining of the bladder that, if I would have to describe it, appear like mini cauliflower floret, or like a sea coral waving from the ocean floor.

Bladder cancers attach to the bladder wall on the lining or the surface. That is called a non-invasive tumor. As the polyp grows it can begin to invade through the top most part, the transitional epithelium to the layers underneath. Bladder cancer gets worse when it grows into or through other layers of the bladder wall. The first layer it invades is a connective layer called the lamina propria. If the cancer begins to invade into the lamina propria layer it becomes a stage 1 cancer.

If the cancer is just on the surface it is not considered a stage 1 cancer but rather is referred to as superficial or a stage A cancer. Underneath the lamina propria is a muscle layer called the detrusor muscle. When the tumor reaches the muscle layer it becomes a stage 2 cancer and has a much higher chance of spreading. Beyond the muscle is the fatty connective tissue holding the bladder in place. If the cancer reaches that level it becomes a stage 3 caner.

Over time, the cancer becomes a stage 4 bladder cancer grows outside the bladder into tissues close by. Bladder cancer may spread to lymph nodes, lungs, liver, bones and other parts of the body.

Stage 2, 3, and 4 cancers require more surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Superficial and Stage 1 tumors may need more surgery or treatments instilled into the bladder. Diagnosis of bladder cancer is confirmed and staged most commonly during a transurethral resection of a bladder tumor TURBT. For many patients, the resection of the bladder tumor will be the only treatment they need.

The tumor is resected under anesthesia in the hospital or surgery center. A scope is placed in the bladder that has a working element that can cut the tumor off of the surface of the bladder. At this time, your doctor will stage your cancer and try to cut it away completely to get rid of the cancer. The surgeon will resect or remove all of the visible tumor if possible and send the biopsy to a pathologist who will review the specimen and assign it a stage and grade.

What is left in the bladder can best be described as a divot, much like a golfer leaves his mark on the fairway, because the urologist has to get deep enough to cut the tumor completely out if possible. The bladder heals very fast, relining itself quickly with healthy urothelium. A tumor grade tells how aggressive the cancer cells are.

A tumor stage tells how much the cancer has spread. We have already reviewed the tumor stages above. The pathologist will review the specimen and also assign a grade to the cancer. Tumors can be low or high grade. High-grade tumor cells are very abnormal, poorly organized and tend to be more serious, faster growing cells that are more likely to recur after they are removed and to invade the other layers of the bladder.

A low-grade tumor has cells that are abnormal, but less aggressive looking and more uniform in character. They tend to behave less aggressively in terms of putting patients at risk for recurrence or invasion to other layers of the bladder. As I said before many patients are treated with simple resection of the bladder tumor. If the bladder cancer is superficial and low grade the treatment is most often just the removal and routine follow-up cystoscopy in the office. Careful follow-up is critical to finding tumors early if they recur and treating them before they advance.

Routine cystoscopy is initially performed usually on a 3 months basis to make sure we catch bladder cancers early, increasing that interval as appropriate. Our story today ends on a happy note. Fortunately, many patients can simply have a procedure done in the hospital without further treatment. For patients needing more treatment we will have the opportunity to talk about other options for more aggressive tumors in future episodes.

Let me leave you with this thought. If you are smoker quit today. Lasers are machines that amplify light waves then shoot them out as narrow, intense beams.

They are used everywhere today. Lasers read CDs and bar codes, guide missiles, cut through steel, precisely measure distances, entertain people and do a thousand other things. Lasers are used in several applications in urology. Most relevant to our discussion today is that we use lasers to break up kidney stones. Theodore Maiman. Maiman, who was trained in both engineering and physics bested many other scientists working at other prestigious institutions such as IBM, Bell Laboratories, and MIT.

One of his breakthroughs was the use of artificial rubies as the active medium, persisting when other scientists had given up on the ruby due to failed calculations. Another breakthrough was the use of a flash bulb to stimulate the ruby rather than continuous light.

On July 7, Dr. When introducing the laser at the press conference Dr. Maiman was prescient but also humble about his new invention. In urology, the laser solution has discovered a long standing medical problem in urinary stone disease. The history of lithotomy treatment and removal of urinary stones dates back to antiquity. The treatment of stones, which at the time most commonly occurred in the bladder, was very dangerous, often lethal.

As such, it led to the development of the lithotomist, who opened the urinary tract and removed stones directly. Recognition of this unique set of skills earned a distinction in the Hippocratic oath, written by Hippocrates around B. We have discussed the shock wave lithotripsy in episode 30 and the percutaneous nephrolithotomy in episode While this is the third option we are discussing it is the most common way to treat kidney stones in our specialty today.

Here is some simple urinary anatomy. The kidney filters blood to make urine. Urine drains from the kidney into a collecting system nouvelle méthode minceur of individual renal calyces draining into a common, funnel shaped renal pelvis.

The bladder stores urine, fills, and empties through the urethra. If you are a man your urethra travels through the prostate and the penis. The female urethra is much shorter. When urine is concentrated the minerals in the urine will form crystals. When the crystals layer on top of one another they will form a kidney stone.

When a stone chooses to try to come out it must travel clinique quebec augmentation mammaire homme the ureter into the bladder and out through the urethra. The ureter is the narrowest part of the urinary tract. When a stone is too large to pass through the narrow ureter it will get stuck as it tries to come out.

I used to love those as a kid. But if there are strawberry chunks they get stuck in the straw. In episode 7 we learned how a young Lyndon Johnson, the future President, had a stone stuck in his ureter during a campaign for the U.

Although we continue to basket stones to remove them we now we have advanced technology to actually get into the ureter and actually see what we are doing. We call this ureteroscopy. A ureteroscope is an endoscope designed to visualize and work within the ureter. We use both semi-rigid scopes as well as flexible scopes.

The rigid scopes give us access just to the lower part of the ureter. Flexible scopes allow us to access all the way back into the kidney and have active deflection on the end of the scope that will allow us to see into all of the calyces within the collecting system. Once we perform ureteroscopy if the stone is small enough we are able to extract it using baskets, thin wire instruments that trap a stone so we can pull it out.

But for stones too large to just pull out we have to use form of lithotripsy to break up the stone. These day we use a holmium laser to break the stone up into fragments small enough for us to remove safely.

Advances in ureteroscopy and laser technology in stone care parallels my time in urology.

In fact, when I first moved to St Paul, MN in to start my practice we did not have lasers in the hospital at all times but they were brought in on special occasions. A doctor would have to order it well ahead of time. Now almost all of our hospitals have a laser available where we can use the technology even on the weekends or in the evenings.

When I started my practice, along with other younger surgeons I began to order the laser routinely and it quickly became obvious it would be economical for the hospital to buy a laser. Because this was brand new in the hospital this was a big deal, and introducing the technology in a safe manner was paramount.

Lasers can do damage to your eyes. This is not a joke. When we first brought the technology into the the hospital we had to educate physicians and staff about laser safety to make sure we all understood the potential harm of the laser.

So it was that one Saturday morning my partners and I all gathered for breakfast at the hospital to learn about laser safety. To prove our knowledge and competence in the safe use of the laser we had to use the laser to bust up something. So, we put a bunch of eggs in a pan of water. All of my partners and I stood around the pan of eggs, wearing our laser safety goggles taking turns cracking the eggs with the laser, laughing because we were feeling a little silly but, nonetheless, checking off the laser safety box.

Such was the introduction of the holmium laser into routine use in St Paul, MN. Different laser mediums solid, liquid, or gas emit laser light in different wavelengths. Molecules, proteins, and pigments absorb light only in a specific range of wavelengths. In the real-world application of lasers in medicine different wavelengths of various lasers do different things and may have unique applications. The wavelength determines if the laser can or should be used on the skin, eyes, kidney stones or on some other tissue.

The Holmium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser Ho: YAG is a solid-state, pulsed laser that emits light with a wavelength of 2. It can transmit energy through a flexible fiber. Because the wavelength rapidly absorbs in water the power dissipates quickly after it is released through the fiber and can be safely fired near the ureteral wall. The laser energy is able to fragment all stones regardless of composition.

Lithotripsy using the exercise to reduce cellulite in back of thighs laser produces small fragments, a weak shockwave, and less retro-pulsion of the stone fragments than other forms of lithotripsy.

All of these factors are important when breaking up a stone stuck in the very narrow, thin-walled ureter or renal pelvis. Accurate fiber contact against a stone is the primary safety factor. A clear visual field is important. Most surgeons will have their preferred settings on the laser machines they are familiar with but in general we start with low-pulse energy and pulse rate and increase as needed.

Much discussion in our field has centered recently around the technique of stone removal. The current data suggests that basketing rather than dusting is probably a better technique in most cases but urologists should be familiar with all ureteroscopic treatment techniques. Ureteral anatomy, width, the ability to pass an access sheath, the available laser, as well as the stone themselves will mandate one technique over another for any particular patient.

As you would expect, short term recovery for this procedure can be uncomfortable. Complications for this procedure also exist.

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Often urologists will leave a temporary ureteral stent to prevent swelling of the ureter as a result of the procedure. Blood in the urine after the procedure is common. Infections can occur. Perforation of the ureter or long-term damage causing a stricture can also occur but is rare.

Regardless of the technique used, the ultimate goal of the procedure should be to leave the patient free of stones. Stone-free is a big deal in the urology world.

Residual fragments are likely sources of future stone formation. Crystals form on top of other crystals listen to episode 3 of this podcast for my rock candy analogy. Residual stones commonly lead to growth, passage, and need for retreatment of more stones in the future. Lastly, surgery to remove a kidney stone is not the end of the relationship with a patient. A patient having ureteroscopy needs follow-up imaging of the kidneys to determine if all of the stones have been removed, whether or not a ureteral stricture scar has formed and whether kidney swelling hydronephrosis persists after the procedure.

If you have ever had a kidney stone there are benefits to dietary counseling, metabolic testing, surveillance imaging, and other practices to prevent and detect stones over the long-term. We have come a long way since Einstein first proposed the laser inDr. Theodore Maiman first displayed the laser inand I was learning laser safety cracking eggs in a hospital basement in His father, Abraham, was an electrical engineer who worked on inventions, included improvements to the stethoscope.

Abraham wanted his son to be a doctor, but Theodore came to feel he had contributed more to medicine with the laser…. Theodore was rambunctious as a boy and aspired to being a comedian, but he was also very good at math.

He went to work for Hughes and after some military contracts fell through, worked on the predecessor to the laser, the maser, which concentrated microwaves, not light… He told his bosses he wanted to make a laser, but they were wary of discouraging reports from other laboratories and said no. But he threatened to quit and build a laser in his garage. The assistant was Charles Asawa, who had the idea of illuminating the ruby with a photographic flash, rather than with the movie projector lamp first used.

After Dr. Maiman succeeded, a news release predicted that doctors would use lasers to focus on a single human cell. For the rest of his life, Dr. He was September is Prostate Cancer Awareness Month. Although September is nearly over I wanted to sneak in a quick episode relevant to Prostate Cancer.

Prostate Cancer is the leading cancer in men after skin cancer. According to the National Cancer Institutemen will be diagnosed this year with prostate cancer and upwards ofmen will die from prostate cancer this year.

If you have listened to this podcast before you know that I continue to highlight people I find remarkable as I start googling and digging these little rabbit holes of research that I do for this show. I continue to find new heroes. My heroes do not always glitter.

No, these are heroes who combine some professional success not always monetary with character, intelligence, diligence, and, at some level, courage. I have found another in the form of a female physicist, Dr.

Rosalyn Sussman Yalow. Odds are that 1 in 10 of us will one day get a kidney stone within our lifetime. Your chances of having a kidney stone increase if you are white, middle-aged, obese, have previously had a kidney stone, have a family history of stones, or live in a hot climate.

A kidney stone is a jagged crystal that grows from the minerals and salts in your urine. Kidney stones form when the mineral and salts in urine are too concentrated. I also give you 5 simple things you can do with your diet that will help to prevent kidney stones:. A kidney stone forms in the drainage system, the collecting system, of your kidneys. A kidney stone can be as small as a grain of sand, or several inches across. There is really no way to dissolve a kidney stone. A stone, once it is made, must either pass spontaneously through the drainage system or, if it cannot pass, must be removed or broken up in some way to allow it to pass.

For many, many years the removal of kidney stones required an incision. The surgical option goes back to antiquity.

In his famous oath, Hippocrates, an ancient physician from about B. Along with the ESWL and the ureteroscopy the PCNL is one of the three procedures that allow urologists today to remove plus percent of all kidney stones without making a large incision.

The article that proved its effectiveness was published in the Journal of Urology, now celebrating its th year of publication and is included along in the special Anniversary edition of the journal which reprinted some of the most impactful articles of the last years.

I give a synopsis of their results during this episode. The percutaneous nephrolithotomy is most often the best treatment for the largest or most complex stones.

A PCNL is typically done under general anesthesia and requires at least an overnight hospitalization. In my practice, we most often perform the PCNL in one surgical episode, gaining access to the kidney alongside an interventional radiologist who helps us dilate the track and get access to the appropriate calyx within the collecting system.

Once in the collecting system the stone can be visualized through a scope and a form of lithotripsy can idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation histology performed to break up the stone.

It helps relieve seizures, remove tumors, take biopsies and enable chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Common techniques used include craniotomy, craniotomy, partial or complete removal, shunting, transsphenoidal surgery, LITT, etc. Cranioplasty Please inquire. This is the surgical repair of a deformity or defect in the skull. The defect is normally as a result of a previous injury or surgery.

It might also be a congenital defect. The surgery is performed for cosmetic reasons and patient psychological wellbeing.

Chiari Malformation Treatment Please inquire. Chiari Malformation is a condition in which tissues of the brain protrude into the spinal canal via the foramen magnum. This can lead to hydrocephalus or syringomyelia. Treatment involves monitoring of the condition and surgery.

Brachial Plexus Injury Treatment Please inquire. An operation to correct brachial plexus injuries should be performed within months the injury as, beyond this period, the prognosis is poor.

Teat such as MRI, CT, nerve conduction studies and electromyogram are usually done to determine the extent of the injury. Treatment can either be surgically or non-surgical, i. Epilepsy Surgery Please inquire. This is a procedure done to treat epilepsy in order to reduce or stop the seizures. There are different types of epilepsy surgical procedure. This includes removal of the area in the brain causing this seizures or separating the part of the brain causing these tumors from the rest.

This is a surgical procedure that is done to implant a device that send electrical stimulus signals to brain regions responsible for body movement. Electrode is placed deep in the brain and then connected to a stimulating device.

DBS helps remove symptoms of slowness of movement, tremor, walking problems and stiffness that is caused by dystonia, essential tremor or Parkinsonism disease. Skull Base Surgery Please inquire.

This is minimally invasive, highly specialized neurosurgical technique for diagnosis, evaluating and treating cancerous or benign growths located on the base of the skull, the upper vertebrae of the spine and the underside of the brain. VP Shunt Surgery Please inquire. VP shunting is a surgical procedure that primarily treats a condition called hydrocephalus. This condition occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid CSF collects in the brain's ventricles.

CSF cushions your brain and protects it from injury inside your skull. Breast Cancer Treatment Please inquire. Treatment of breast cancer depends on the stage. The treatment may involve radiotherapy, surgery or medications. The types of surgeries used included mastectomy radical mastectomy or simple mastectomy, modified radical mastectomy, patery modified radical mastectomybreast-conserving surgery, lumpectomy and lymph node dissection.

Medical therapy involves chemotherapy for breast cancer or systemic hormonal therapy like tamoxifen. Cervical Cancer Treatment Please inquire. Treatment of cervical cancer depends on the stage though other factors like the site of the tumor, ones desire for children, overall health, age, and type of cancer.

While in stage 0 CISthe condition can be managed by loop electrosurgical procedure, simple hysterectomy, cone biopsy, cryotherapy and laser therapy. At stage 1a, cone biopsy is preferred. At stage 1B and 2A, surgery and radiation or concurrent chemoradiation are desirable. At stage 2B, 3 and 4A chemo-radiation is used.

At stage 4B, chemo-radiotherapy to try to slow down the tumor. Chemotherapy Please inquire. Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to treat diseases.

But in medicine, it is commonly used when referring to the medical treatment of cancer that utilizes one or more antineoplastic medications as part of a standardized chemotherapeutic regimen. They are given with the intent to reduce symptoms, prolong life or cure cancer. Each cancer has a specific regiment that has been prepared for its management. Medical oncologists administrate chemotherapeutic regiment. Acute Leukemia Treatment Please inquire.

The statement of acute leukemia depends on the subtype of leukemia. Treatment empathizes long-term cemetery with antineoplastic drugs. Various combination of chemotherapeutic agents has been developed for various leukemias.

Oncologist use chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy and stem cell transplant. Brachytherapy Please inquire. Its a kind of radiotherapy where a sealed source of radiation is next to or inside the place needing treatment.

A radioactive material is placed inside the body hence sometimes referred to as internal radiation. It is used in the management of cancer of the prostate, skin, cervical and breast and other tumors in the body.

It can be used together with chemotherapy, surgery or EBRT. Bladder Cancer Treatment Please inquire. Medical and surgical modalities are used treatment of bladder cancer. The surgery done is either partial or complete Cystectomy. This involves partial or complete removal of the bladder. Medical therapy includes chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Cancer Screening Please inquire. The goal of this exercise is to detect cancers before their symptoms manifest.

The test encompasses medical imaging, blood tests, urinalysis and other tests. It is common knowledge that the benefit of having a cancer screen done outweighs outweigh anybody harm that may result from the process. When cancerous tissues are detected early, they are easy to cure or treat. The most common cancers that are routinely screened are breast, colon, oral, prostate, pancreatic, lung, bowel and cervical cancers.

Whipple Procedure Please inquire. Whipple Procedure also known as kaush-Whipple Procedure, pancretoduodectopmy, pancreaticoduodenectomy is a major surgical procedure dome to remove cancer of head of pancreas. It involves the removal of the common bile duct, the gallbladder, the duodenum and portions of the stomach. Chronic Leukemia Treatment Please inquire.

Treatment options included targeted drug therapy, chemotherapy, bone marrow transplant, and immunotherapy. Glioblastoma Treatment Please inquire. Glioblastoma Glioblastoma multiform is a malignant tumor that affects the spinal cord and the brain. It is usually quite aggressive hence can spread quickly and grow fast. Treatment includes radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery craniotomy and radiosurgery.

Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Please inquire. Laryngeal Cancer is a condition which cancerous cells form from larynx tissues. The most common presentation include ear pain and sore throat. Laryngectomy total in addition to thyroidectomy and nodal removal followed by radiotherapy is the most common mode of treatment. Cancer Staging Please inquire. Staging is the process used to find out ride de visage opencv amount of cancer in the body and their locations.

The information is used by doctors to formulate the patient treatment plan and to determine their prognosis. There are four different ways staging is done i. The four factors used in staging include: site of primary tumor, the tumor size, the involvement of lymph nodes and metastases. Tests done to enable staging process include imaging tests, pathological tests, surgical reports, laboratory tests and physical examination.

CyberKnife Treatment Please inquire. This is a non-invasive treatment for benign and malignant tumors and other conditions that need radiotherapy. It is a flameless radiosurgery robotic system that uses targeted radiation to destroy tumor in the body. It is designed to minimize the exposure of healthy tissues and organs to radiation. It is pain free, does not need hospitalization or general anesthesia, spare healthy tissues, non-invasive and one only need one to five sessions to complete treatment.

Treatment of head and neck malignancies depend on the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment modalities used in the management of these malignancies included radiotherapy, surgery and chemotherapy. Surgical options included laser technology, excision, neck dissection or lymph node dissection, and reconstructive surgery.

Target therapy is available. This is a new medical technology that is under development and can be used to treat a wide range of disorderds. It is only useful in the management of a single tumor or a section of a larger tumor hence not useful for highly malignant cancers.

Adrenal Cancer Treatment Please inquire. Treatment of adrenal cancer depend on the stage. Stage 1 and two are treated surgically which may be combined with radiotherapy or mitotane administration. Stage 3 is treated surgically. This may be preceded by adjuvant radiotherapy or mitotane. For stage 4, a debulking surgery is done followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Bile Duct Cancer Treatment Please inquire. Treatment of this condition depend on the stage. Medical procedure used included chemotherapy, transarterial chemoembolization, ERCP and radiotherapy.

Surgical options available include hepatectomy and pancreatic tumor removal surgery. Lymph Node Biopsy Please inquire. A lymph node biopsy is the removal of lymph node tissue for examination under a microscope. The lymph nodes are small glands that make white blood cells lymphocyteswhich fight infection.

Lymph nodes may trap the germs that are causing an infection. Cancer often spreads to lymph nodes. A lymph node biopsy is done in an operating room in a hospital. Or, it is done at an outpatient surgical center. Blood Cancer Treatment Leukemia Please inquire. Leukaemia is cancer of blood-forming tissues, including bone marrow. Many types exist such as acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, acute myeloid leukaemia and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

Bone Cancer Treatment Please inquire. Signs and symptoms of bone cancer include Bone pain, Swelling and tenderness near the affected area, Weakened bone, leading to fracture, Fatigue, Unintended weight loss. Liver cancer Treatment hepatic cancer Please inquire. Cancer ri boat rides uk begins in the cells of the liver.

Symptoms are uncommon in the early stages of liver cancer. Later, symptoms may include weight loss, stomach pain, vomiting and yellowed skin.

Lung Cancer Treatment Please inquire. A cancer that begins in the lungs and most often occurs in people who smoke. Two major types of lung cancer are non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Causes of lung cancer include smoking, second-hand smoke, exposure to certain toxins and family history.

Prostate Cancer Treatment prostatic carcinoma Please inquire. A cancer in a man's prostate, a small walnut-sized gland that produces seminal fluid. A man's prostate produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm. Symptoms include difficulty with urination, but sometimes there are no symptoms at all. Mouth Cancer Treatment Oral cancer Please inquire. Cancer that develops in any part of the mouth. Risk factors include tobacco use, heavy alcohol use and human papillomavirus HPV infection.

Symptoms include a sore that doesn't heal, a lump or a white or red patch on the inside of the mouth. Gamma Knife Radiosurgery Please inquire.

Gamma Knife Radiosurgery is a procedure that uses radiation to treat brain tumours and anomalies of the brain. Using specialized medical equipment, high number of radiation beams are passed exactly on the tumor in the brain. This is highly precise technique and causes negligible damage to tissues near the tumor. All the beams combine on the tumor and create a strong radiation, thereby destroying the tumor. Lymphatic cancer Lymphoma Please inquire.

A cancer of the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is the body's disease-fighting network. It includes the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus gland and bone marrow. The main types of lymphoma are Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Symptoms include enlarged lymph nodes, fatigue and weight loss. Treatment may involve chemotherapy, medication, radiation therapy and rarely stem-cell transplant. Image-guided radiation therapy is the process of frequent two and three-dimensional imaging, during a course of radiation treatment, used to direct radiation therapy utilizing the imaging coordinates of the actual radiation treatment plan.

Intensity-modulated radiotherapy IMRT uses linear accelerators to safely and painlessly deliver precise radiation doses to a tumor while minimizing the dose to surrounding normal tissue. Your radiation oncologist will speak with you to determine whether IMRT is the most appropriate treatment for you. Stereotactic radiosurgery SRS is a non-surgical radiation therapy used to treat functional abnormalities and small tumors of the brain.

It can deliver precisely-targeted radiation in fewer high-dose treatments than traditional therapy, which can help preserve healthy tissue. Pancreatic Cancer Please inquire. The pancreas secretes enzymes that aid digestion and hormones that help tisane antillaise pour maigrir homme the metabolism of sugars.

This type of cancer is often detected late, spreads rapidly and has a poor prognosis. There are no symptoms in the early stages. Later stages are associated with symptoms, but these can be non-specific, such as lack of appetite and weight loss.

Treatment may include surgically removing the pancreas, radiation and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy Please inquire. Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.

Bone Marrow Cancer Multiple myeloma Please inquire. A cancer of plasma cells. The plasma cells are a type of white blood cell in the bone marrow. With this condition, a group of plasma cells becomes cancerous and multiplies. The disease can damage the bones, immune system, kidneys and red blood cell count. Symptoms may not be present or may be non-specific, such as loss of appetite, bone pain and fever.

Treatments include medication, chemotherapy, corticosteroids, radiation or a stem-cell transplant. Bunion Surgery Please inquire. A bunion is very painful. It normally forms a union between this toe and the 1st metatarsal one. Bunion removal surgery helps correct the area of deformity that forms on foot near the big toe. The surgery is sometimes referred to as hallux valgus correction or bunionectomy.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Surgery Please inquire. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is the tingling, numbness, weakness plus other problems in one's hand because of pressure being applied to the median nerve as it traverses the wrist. The small space where it passes through in the wrist called the Carpal Tunnel.

This surgery is meant to relive the pressure hence relieving the symptoms. Hip Replacement Please inquire. This is an orthopedic surgical procedure where a damaged hip is replaced with an implant, i. This procedure can be performed either as hemi-replacement only femoral head is replaced or total replacement i.

Knee Replacement Please inquire. Knee Replacement arthroplasty is an operation used to replace weight-bearing surfaces of the knee joint to relieve disability and pain.

Especially in patients with osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Surgical techniques available include total knee replacement, partial knee replacement and femoral replacement. Shoulder Replacement Please inquire. Shoulder Replacement arthroplasty is an operation in which a prosthesis is used to replace part or all of the glenohumeral joint to relieve disability and pain.

It is used to fix shoulder joint damage or relieve arthritic pain. We have the traditional shoulder total shoulder arthroplasty and the reverse total shoulder arthroplasty approach. The latter has two approaches, i. Ankle Arthroscopy Please inquire.

Its an ankle replacement surgery done to replace damaged joint articular surfaces with prosthetic implants. It is currently a more preferred option than arthrodesis. This is a new type of orthopedic procedure that is used to manage to isolate full thickness joint articular surface defect in the knees.

It is performed in three stages where about milligrams of cartilage is sampled from a less weight bearing area of a joins, isolated enzymatically then grown in a lab for six weeks before transplanting in damaged areas so that they grow and form new cartilage.

This is a procedure done to treat knee ligament tears. It is currently done as a laparoscopic procedure, but open surgery is still practiced in some regions of the world. It helps reduce pain and improve stability in the joint. Benign Bone Tumor Removal Please inquire. Benign Bone Tumors are not cancers hence do not metastasize to other areas of the body. They however greatly weaken a one.

Common one tumor include giant cell tumors, osteoid osteoma, osteochondroma, and osteoblastoma. Treatment involves surgical excision of the tumor or scrapping out curettage of the tumor with bone grafting. Congenital Hip Dislocation Treatment Please inquire. Congenital Hip Dislocation is also known as developmental dysplasia of the hip. It is a condition where a child is born with an unstable joint due to abnormal formation of the joint in early fetal development stages.

It is more common in girls than boys. Screening for the condition occurs at birth and in the first year of life. A baby younger than 6 years is treated using a Pavlik harness. If this fails, the condition is managed via surgery.

Surgical options include open reduction or closed reduction, after which the hip and leg are placed in a cast for at least 12 weeks. A child who is 18 months or older is managed by pelvic or femoral osteotomy to reconstruct their hip. Achilles Tendon Rupture Please inquire. This is a complete tear through the tendon, usually about two inches from the calcaneal heel bone.

The tendon it vital to activities like jumping, walking or running. The rupture is common in those suffering from Achilles tendinitis, illnesses like diabetes or on drugs like steroids and antibiotics. Surgery is essential for faster healing. However, a cast can be used to allow the leg heal naturally but will take quite long.

Ankle Fracture Treatment Please inquire. Ankle fractures can be treated surgically or non-surgically. The non-surgical options include casting and splinting. Limb Amputation Please inquire. This is the removal of a limb by surgery, medical or trauma. As a surgical measure, it is used to control a disease process affected limb like gangrene and malignancy or to control pain. It may also be carried of prophylactically to prevent these problems. Bone Fracture Treatment Please inquire. Treatment depend on the severity of the fracture, patient choice and cost of treatment.

Medically, reduction is done to fix a dislocated or Brocken bone. Devices available to fix fracture include orthopedic casts, splints, elastic bandages, and traction splint. Therapeutic physical therapy and joint manipulation can be done. Surgery included internal and external fixation. Clubfoot Treatment Please inquire. Club foot is also known as congenital talipes equinovarus.

It is a combination of four thing in one i. There are several types of clubfoot. It is a highly disabling condition if not managed early. The condition can be managed Non-operatively by Ponseti technique, Kite technique and French technique. Elbow Replacement Please inquire. This s a procedure done to replace elbow joint that has been damaged by disease or trauma. It is indicated in severe loss of function, instability, joint destruction, severe pain or deformity.

It is successful in relieving people of pain and improving the overall quality of life of the patient. The MCL is one of the four ligaments of the knee. A Knee Ligament Surgery is done to treat torn ligament as a result of injurer.

As the MCL surgery is located outside the joint, no surgical key hole are usually necessary. The torn ligament can be reattached with staples, screws and screws through a small incision.

Knee Arthroscopy Please inquire. These is a surgical procedure that is done to teat or diagnose knee joint problems like injuries and diseases. During the procedure, a small incision is made and an Arthroscope tiny camera inserted into the knees therapy allowing the examiner to see the inside of the joint on a live screen. Ankle Fusion Surgery Please inquire. Also known as ankle arthrodesis, is a surgical procedure done to fuse the different bones that make up the ankle joint into one piece.

It is done when the joint become painful and worn out due to disease or previous trauma. Ankle Replacement Please inquire. The procedure is also known as total ankle arthroplasty. It is an orthopedic procedure done to replace the ankle joint articular surfaces that have been damaged by disease or injury with prosthetic components. It is done to treat ankle arthritis. Artificial Limb Services Please inquire. These services are provided to patient whose limb have been amputated so that they are able to walk again and improve their quality of life.

Rehabilitative service are provided try a dedicated team of specialists. Abscess Debridement Please inquire. Abscess is by infectious process that features collection of pus that is surrounded by inflamed tissue. The Debridement entails incision and drainage of the lesion followed by packing then proper dressing of the wound. The patient is then made to undergo a course of antibiotics. Acromioclavicular Joint Repair Please inquire.

Acromioclavicular Joint is the meeting point of the clavicle and acromion joint in the shoulder. Injuries in the joint result from trauma, fall or sports. Conservative treatment is used in management of minor injuries. Sever injuries need surgery. This may be done through an open procedure or arthroscopy. This are employed in the reconstruction of the joint.

Diagnostic Arthoscopy Please inquire. Knee Arthroscopy is a surgical technique that can diagnose and treat problems in the knee joint. During the procedure, your surgeon will make a very small incision and insert a tiny camera - called an arthroscope - into your knee.

This allows them to view the inside of the joint on a screen. Artificial Disc Replacement Please inquire. Sometimes also called total disc replacement or total disc arthroplasty. The procedure involves replacing a painful damaged disc with an artificial disc. The procedure can be performed on the neck cervical spine or lumbar spine lower back.

The procedure helps preserve motion in the intervertebral discs. It is performed in patients with damaged discs, e. Cervical Disc Disease Treatment Please inquire.

The treatment of cervical disc diseases begins when your doctor takes a good history, carries out a physical examination and then order appropriate investigations. Based on this the doctor will decide whether to use the surgical or nonsurgical option. Non-surgical modalities include lifestyle modification, physiotherapy, and analgesia and heat therapy. Surgical option helps one heal fast and include cervical artificial disc replacement and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion available in India.

Laminectomy Please inquire. This is a surgical procedure used to remove areas of the vertebral bones called lamina.

Muscles of the back are pushed sideways during the procedure rather than cut and sections of the vertebra adjacent to the lamina left intact.

It helps relieve purser on the spinal nerves and spinal cord. Commonly done to manage spinal stenosis. Spine Surgery Please inquire. This is a surgery done on the spine to treat back pain, or other damages are done on the spine by trauma or disease scoliosis, spinal stenosis, and disc herniation. It is recommended when conservative treatments are unsuccessful.

It can either be done as an open or minimally invasive procedure. Common surgical approaches are lateral, posterior and anterior. Spinal surgical techniques included laminotomy, laminectomy, microdiscectomy, disc replacement, spinal fusion, and foraminotomy. Corpectomy Please inquire. This is a surgical operation that involves removing part or all a vertebral body usually as a mean of decompressing the nerves and spinal cord.

It is sometimes performed in association with discectomy. It is commonly done in a patient with spinal stenosis due to osteophytes. Kyphoplasty Please inquire. This is a minimally invasive surgical procedure sued to treat the compression of the spine following a fracture. The spinal compression fractures usually occur majorly in spinal vertebral bones weakened by osteoporosis. It helps relieve pain and correct deformities. Foraminotomy Please inquire. This is a medical procedure done to relieve pressure applied to nerves that are being compressed by intervertebral foramina.

Intervertebral foramina is a passage of the vertebral bone through which nerves bundles pass to the body from the spinal cord. It is performed via a minimally invasive operation where a cut is made in the back then the muscles pushed on to the sides to create a way. The surgeon will then drills a small hole in the vertebral bone. Cervical Spondylosis Treatment Please inquire.

The management of this condition involves rehabilitative programs like occupational therapy, physical therapy, and recreational therapy. Surgery is advised when neurologic deficits progress, when there is documented spinal cord or cervical nerve root compression and when the pain becomes intractable.

Scoliosis Surgery Please inquire. It arises commonly before pubertal growth spurts. Spinal Disc Herniation Treatment slipped disc Please inquire. This condition can be managed medically or surgically. Pain is managed using NSAIDs and therapies like physical therapy, stretching and chiropractic techniques are useful. Medical procedures included epidural steroid injection and therapeutic ultrasound. Spine surgery is the definitive management.

Scoliosis Treatment Please inquire. It can be caused by muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy or idiopathic. Surgery is the main modality of treatment. Surgical options include scoliosis fusion surgery and anterior scoliosis corrective surgery VBT. Spinal Fusion Surgery Please inquire. Sometimes also called spondylosyndesis or spondylodesis. It is an operation done to stop motion in segments of the spine thoracic, lumber or cervical that are causing a patient pain.

It helps to stabilizes and decompress the spine. The procedure involves the use of bone grafts which can either be allografts, autografts or artificial substitutes. Nucleoplasty Please inquire. This is a minimally invasive procedure sometimes referred to as percutaneous discectomy used to treat patient suffering from problem caused by herniated discs such as leg pain and low back pain.

It is performed by an interventional radiologist. Lumbar Microdiscectomy Surgery Please inquire. A lumbar microdiscectomy surgery is performed to remove the portion of a herniated disc that is irritating or inflaming the nerve root.

A microdiscectomy is performed through a small incision in the midline of the low back. First, the back muscles, called erector spinae, are lifted off the bony arch, called the lamina, of the spine. Since these back muscles run vertically, they can be moved out of the way rather than cut. These include sleeve gastrostomy, adjustable gastric band, gastric bypass and Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch.

This consultation will provide you with details about this procedure and go on to offer details of procedure relevant to thee. We will endeavor to explain to you how the procedures work and how it will help maigrir en courant vite fait achieve your desired weight. Gastric Band Surgery Make inquiry.

This is a weight loss surgery. In it, the surgeon places a band around the upper part of one's stomach hence creating a small pouch to hold food.

The band will help limit the quantity of food one can take by making one feel early satiety after consuming small food. The procedure is currently performed laparoscopically. Gastric Balloon Treatment Make inquiry. This is weight loss treatment modality where a deflated balloon is inserted endoscopically inside one's stomach via the esophagus then filled with a sterile saline solution.

It causes a person to feel full faster hence eats less food. Gastric Bypass Surgery Make inquiry. This is a surgical procedure where the stomach is divided into a smaller upper pouch and a much larger remnant pouch after which the small bowel is rearranged to connect with both.

It is currently performed endoscopically. It used to manage type 2 diabetes, morbid obesity, sleep apnea, etc. Gastric Sleeve Make inquiry. This is a surgical procedure done to induce weight loss in a patient. In can be achieved through an open or laparoscopic surgery. Cardiac Assessment Make inquiry. The assessment encompasses taking a comprehensive history of a patient, carrying out a thorough physical examination of a patient and finally doing investigations such as electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, central venous pressure, etc.

Coronary Angiogram Make inquiry. It is a type of cardiac catheterization procedure. It is performed for both interventional and diagnostic purposes. An X-ray machine is then used to take serial images angiograms that give a picture of how the blood vessels are. Based on the finding, an interventional cardiologist will open the clogged vessels angioplasty. Coronary Angioplasty Make inquiry.

Also known as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty PTCA Thais is a procedure that is used to widen narrowed or blocked coronary arteries. The procedure is carried out by an interventional cardiologist. When combined with stenting, it is referred to as percutaneous coronary intervention. Is should be done within thirty minutes to 2 hours after a having a cardiac event. Also referred to as colloquially heart bypass or bypass surgery or coronary artery bypass surgery.

It is an operation done restore normal blood flow to obstructed coronary vessels hence used to manage coronary heart disease. The surgery has two main approaches, i. Cardiology Consultation Make inquiry. This is a hospital checkup and review by a qualified cardiologist. It involves patient assessment, treatment planning, diagnosis and cardiac interventions. Cardiac CT Make inquiry. It may or may not be done with intravenous contrast agents.

Aortic Valve Repair Make inquiry. This is a procedure done to repair or replace aortic valves damaged by disease. Aortic valves are one of the four heart valves that help regulate the flow of blood in the heart. The surgeon will remove the damaged valves and replace them with a prosthetic one which is then screwed into place.

The valves can be mechanical made of artificial materials like carbon or biological, i. It utilizes a special dye that has a radioactive tracer.

It helps doctor s to see how well they are working. It measures oxygen use, glucose metabolism, blood flow, etc. It helps show problems at cellular level hence useful in detecting brain disorders, heart problems, central nervous system problems like seizure and memory disorders.

It also shows the response to cancer to chemotherapy. This is an imaging modality that used strong radio waves and magnetic field to produce imaged of the internal structure of the body. The scanner itself is a large tube that comprises powerful magnets. One lies inside the tube while getting scanned. The machine can produce two type of images, i. Sometimes, contrast is used to enhance the images. Abdominal Ultrasound Make inquiry. This is a type of medical ultrasonography that is used to visualize anatomical structures of the abdomen.

It uses the reflection and transmission of sound waves to visualize internal organs of the body via the wall of the abdomen. Chest X-Ray Make inquiry. This a radiograph of the chest used to diagnose chest diseases injuries. It is done using an X-ray machine that passes X-rays through the chest into a film to create the image.

This is a modern imaging technique that makes use of that makes use of computed processed X-ray measurements that are taken at different angles to produce tomographic images of specific areas of objects scanned thereby allowing the user to see the internal structure of the object without physically cutting them.

It is used in the diagnosis, screening or prevention of diseases. Diagnostic X-Rays Make inquiry. Abdominal CT Scan Make inquiry. This is a diagnostic radiological imaging test that is done to help detect diseases of the colon, small bowel and other abdominal organs or determine the cause of abdominal pain.

Breast Cancer Treatment Make inquiry. Treatment of breast cancer depends on the stage. The treatment may involve radiotherapy, surgery or medications. The types of surgeries used included mastectomy radical mastectomy or simple mastectomy, modified radical mastectomy, patery modified radical mastectomybreast-conserving surgery, lumpectomy and lymph node dissection.

Medical therapy involves chemotherapy for breast cancer or systemic hormonal therapy like tamoxifen. Chemotherapy Make inquiry. Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to treat diseases. But in medicine, it is commonly used when referring to the medical treatment of cancer that utilizes one or more antineoplastic medications as part of a standardized chemotherapeutic regimen. They are given with the intent to reduce symptoms, prolong life or cure cancer. Each cancer has a specific regiment that has been prepared for its management.

Medical oncologists administrate chemotherapeutic regiment. Bladder Cancer Treatment Make inquiry. Medical and surgical modalities are used treatment of bladder cancer.

The surgery done is either partial or complete Cystectomy. This involves partial or complete removal of the bladder. Medical therapy includes chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

Cancer Screening Make inquiry. The goal of this exercise is to detect cancers before their symptoms manifest. The test encompasses medical imaging, blood tests, urinalysis and other tests.

It is common knowledge that the benefit of having a cancer screen done outweighs outweigh anybody harm that may result from the process. When cancerous tissues are detected early, they are easy to cure or treat. The most common cancers that are routinely screened are breast, colon, oral, prostate, pancreatic, lung, bowel and cervical cancers. Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Make inquiry. Laryngeal Cancer is a condition which cancerous cells form from larynx tissues. The most common presentation include ear pain and sore throat.

Laryngectomy total in addition to thyroidectomy and nodal removal followed by radiotherapy is the most common mode of treatment.

Cancer Staging Make inquiry. Staging is the process used to find out the amount of cancer in the body and their locations. The information is used by doctors to formulate the patient treatment plan and to determine their prognosis.

There are four different ways staging is done i. The four factors used in staging include: site of primary tumor, the tumor size, the involvement of lymph nodes and metastases. Tests done to enable staging process include imaging tests, pathological tests, surgical reports, laboratory tests and physical examination.

Treatment of head and neck malignancies depend on the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment modalities used in the management of these malignancies included radiotherapy, surgery and chemotherapy. Surgical options included laser technology, excision, neck dissection or lymph node dissection, and reconstructive surgery.

Target therapy is available. Blood Cancer Treatment Leukemia Make inquiry. Leukaemia is cancer of blood-forming tissues, including bone marrow. Many types exist such as acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, acute myeloid leukaemia and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

Bone Cancer Treatment Make inquiry. Signs and symptoms of bone cancer include Bone pain, Swelling and tenderness near the affected area, Weakened bone, leading to fracture, Fatigue, Unintended weight loss. Liver cancer Treatment hepatic cancer Make inquiry. Cancer that begins in the cells of the liver. Symptoms are uncommon in the early stages of liver cancer. Later, symptoms may include weight loss, stomach pain, vomiting and yellowed skin.

Lung Cancer Treatment Make inquiry. A cancer that begins in the lungs and most often occurs in people who smoke. Two major types of lung cancer are non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Causes of lung cancer include smoking, second-hand smoke, exposure to certain toxins and family history. Prostate Cancer Treatment prostatic carcinoma Make inquiry.

A cancer in a man's prostate, a small walnut-sized gland that produces seminal fluid. A man's prostate produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm.

Symptoms include difficulty with urination, but sometimes there are no symptoms at all. CyberKnife Treatment Make inquiry. This is a non-invasive treatment for benign and malignant tumors and other conditions that need radiotherapy. It is a flameless radiosurgery robotic system that uses targeted radiation to destroy tumor in the body. It is designed to minimize the exposure of healthy tissues and organs to radiation.

It is pain free, does not need hospitalization or general anesthesia, spare healthy tissues, non-invasive and one only need one to five sessions to complete treatment.

Bunion Surgery Make inquiry. A bunion is very painful. It normally forms a union between this toe and the 1st metatarsal one. Bunion removal surgery helps correct the area of deformity that forms on foot near the big toe.

The surgery is sometimes referred to as hallux valgus correction or bunionectomy. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Surgery Make inquiry. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is the tingling, numbness, weakness plus other problems in one's hand because of pressure being applied to the median nerve as it traverses the wrist. The small space where it passes through in the wrist called the Carpal Tunnel.

This surgery is meant to relive the pressure hence relieving the symptoms. Hip Replacement Make inquiry. This is an orthopedic surgical procedure where a damaged hip is replaced with an implant, i. This procedure can be performed either as hemi-replacement only femoral head is replaced or total replacement i. Knee Replacement Make inquiry.

Knee Replacement arthroplasty is an operation used to replace weight-bearing surfaces of the knee joint to relieve disability and pain. Especially in patients with osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Surgical techniques available include total knee replacement, partial knee replacement and femoral replacement.

Shoulder Replacement Make inquiry. Shoulder Replacement arthroplasty is an operation in which a prosthesis is used to replace part or all of the glenohumeral joint to relieve disability and pain. It is used to fix shoulder joint damage or relieve arthritic pain. We have the traditional shoulder total shoulder arthroplasty and the reverse total shoulder arthroplasty approach. The latter has two approaches, i. Ankle Arthroscopy Make inquiry.

Its an ankle replacement surgery done to replace damaged joint articular surfaces with prosthetic implants. It is currently a more preferred option than arthrodesis. This is a procedure done to treat knee ligament tears. It is currently done as a laparoscopic procedure, but open surgery is still practiced in some regions of the world.

It helps reduce pain and improve stability in the joint. Achilles Tendon Rupture Make inquiry. This is a complete tear through the tendon, usually about two inches from the calcaneal heel bone. The tendon it vital to activities like jumping, walking or running. The rupture is common in those suffering from Achilles tendinitis, illnesses like diabetes or on drugs like steroids and antibiotics.

Surgery is essential for faster healing. However, a cast can be used to allow the leg heal naturally but will take quite long. Ankle Fracture Treatment Make inquiry. Ankle fractures can be treated surgically or non-surgically. The non-surgical options include casting and splinting. Bone Fracture Treatment Make inquiry. Treatment depend on the severity of the fracture, patient choice and cost of treatment.

Medically, reduction is done to fix a dislocated or Brocken bone. Devices available to fix fracture include orthopedic casts, splints, elastic bandages, and traction splint. Therapeutic physical therapy and joint manipulation can be done.